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Friday, September 12, 2008

ROLE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE

Role of science and technology in agriculture

The area of science and technology has been of immense help to agriculture in seeking for the best methods of protecting crops against diseases and pests, improving the quality of crops and livestock seeing best methods of storing crops and livestock products and even helping to predict the climate conductive for agricultural practices.
The areas in which science and technology have been very helpful are:
1. The study and predictions of weather and climate changes as they affect the growing of plants and the keeping of animals respond sharply to climate factors like temperature, light, rainfall, etc. these factors affect the growth and production of crops and livestock.
2. The construction of different types of roads to suit different purpose so as to ease the transportation of agricultural products from the rural areas to the urban areas of from one country to another. This is done by agricultural engineers.
3. The control of pests and diseases of crops and livestock. The science of pathology deals with either total eradication of disease pathogens or providing adequate control measures.
It also helps in the development and judicious use of chemicals like insecticides, fungicides, avicides, nematicides, rodenticides and fumigants in order to improve the standard of crops breeding can be produced for resistance to diseases, soil conditions, climate factors, for early maturing crops and livestock, high yielding crops, prolific livestock, etc.

4. Under crop improvement, the geneticist helps in the area of breeding plants and animals for different purpose, e.g. plants and animals can be produced for resistance to diseases, soil conditions, climate factors, for early maturing crops and livestock, high yielding crops, prolific livestock, etc.
5. The science of management helps in the development of the best result – oriented plant and animal husbandry methods like monoculture, crop rotation, intensive farming, battery cage and deep litter systems in poultry.
6. The development of machinery and other equipment like tractors, cultivators, ridgers, planters, combine harvesters, to replace old tools like hoe, cutlass, rake, etc.
Science helps in the development of modern methods of processing plant and animal products, like shelling and canning.
7. Building engineers also develop farm buildings like pens for livestock, pens for poultry and pigs, silos, cribs for storage and even the construction of dams to supply water and electricity.
8. The nutritionist helps in developing different types of feed stuffs for animals and chemicals like fertilizers for plants.

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